What is there to show? Not shit, that's why I made this pretty 4K desktop background instead:submitted by o_ohi to retard_bot [link] [comments]
On the real: I've been developing this project like 6 months now, what's up? Where's that video update I promised, showing off the Bot Builder? Is an end in sight?
Yes sort of. I back-tested 6 months of data at over 21% on a net SPY-neutral, six month span of time (with similar results on a 16 year span) including 2 bear, 2 bull, 2 crab months. But that's not good enough to be sure / reliable. I had gotten so focused on keeping the project pretty and making a video update that I was putting off major, breaking changes that I needed to make. The best quant fund ever made, the Medallion fund, was once capable of roughly 60% per year consistently, but in Retard Bot's case 1.5% compounded weekly. "But I make 60% on one yolo" sure whatever, can you do it again every year, with 100% of your capital, where failure means losing everything? If you could, you'd be loading your Lambo onto your Yacht right now instead of reading this autistic shit.
The End Goal1.5% compounded weekly average is $25K -> $57M in 10 years, securing a fairly comfortable retirement for your wife's boyfriend. It's a stupidly ambitious goal. My strategy to pull it off is actually pretty simple. If you look at charts for the best performing stocks over the past 10 years, you'll find that good companies move in the same general trajectory more often than they don't. This means the stock market moves with momentum. I developed a simple equation to conservatively predict good companies movements one week into the future by hand, and made 100%+ returns 3 weeks in a row. Doing the math took time, and I realized a computer could do much more complex math, on every stock, much more efficiently, so I developed a bot and it did 100% for 3 consecutive weeks, buying calls in a bull-market.
See the problem there? The returns were good but they were based on a biased model. The model would pick the most efficient plays on the market if it didn't take a severe downturn. But if it did, the strategy would stop working. I needed to extrapolate my strategy into a multi-model approach that could profit on momentum during all different types of market movement. And so I bought 16 years of option chain data and started studying the concept of momentum based quantitative analysis. As I spent more and more weeks thinking about it, I identified more aspects of the problem and more ways to solve it. But no matter how I might think to design algorithms to fundamentally achieve a quantitative approach, I knew that my arbitrary weights and variables and values and decisions could not possibly be the best ones.
Why Retard Bot Might WorkSo I approached the problem from all angles, every conceivable way to glean reliably useful quantitative information about a stock's movement and combine it all into a single outcome of trade decisions, and every variable, every decision, every model was a fluid variable that machine learning, via the process of Evolution could randomly mutate until perfection. And in doing so, I had to fundamentally avoid any method of testing my results that could be based on a bias. For example, just because a strategy back-tests at 40% consistent yearly returns on the past 16 years of market movement doesn't mean it would do so for the next 16 years, since the market could completely end its bull-run and spend the next 16 years falling. Improbable, but for a strategy outcome that can be trusted to perform consistently, we have to assume nothing.
So that's how Retard Bot works. It assumes absolutely nothing about anything that can't be proven as a fundamental, statistical truth. It uses rigorous machine learning to develop fundamental concepts into reliable, fine tuned decision layers that make models which are controlled by a market-environment-aware Genius layer that allocates resources accordingly, and ultimately through a very complex 18 step process of iterative ML produces a top contender through the process of Evolution, avoiding all possible bias. And then it starts over and does it again, and again, continuing for eternity, recording improved models when it discovers them.
The Current Development PhaseOr... That's how it would work, in theory, if my program wasn't severely limited by the inadequate infrastructure I built it with. When I bought 16 years of data, 2TB compressed to its most efficient binary representation, I thought I could use a traditional database like MongoDB to store and load the option chains. It's way too slow. So here's where I've ended up this past week:
It was time to rip off the bandaid and rebuild some performance infrastructure (the database and decision stack) that was seriously holding me back from testing the project properly. Using MongoDB, which has to pack and unpack data up and down the 7 layer OSI model, it took an hour to test one model for one year. I need to test millions of models for 16 years, thousands of times over.
I knew how to do that, so instead of focusing on keeping things stable so I could show you guys some pretty graphs n shit, I broke down the beast and started rebuilding with a pure memory caching approach that will load the options chains thousands of times faster than MongoDB queries. And instead of running one model, one decision layer at a time on the CPU, the new GPU accelerated decision stack design will let me run hundreds of decision layers on millions of models in a handful of milliseconds. Many, many orders of magnitude better performance, and I can finally make the project as powerful as it was supposed to be.
I'm confident that with these upgrades, I'll be able to hit the goal of 60% consistent returns per year. I'll work this goddamn problem for a year if I have to. I have, in the process of trying to become an entrepreneur, planned project after project and given up half way through when it got too hard, or a partner quit, or someone else launched something better. I will not give up on this one, if it takes the rest of the year or five more.
But I don't think it'll come to that. Even with the 20% I've already achieved, if I can demonstrate that in live trading, that's already really good, so there's not really any risk of real failure at this point. But I will, regardless, finish developing the vision I have for Retard Bot and Bidrate Renaissance before I'm satisfied.
ily, thank you, etcThis shit sweet as hell thank you for taking the time to add it in at the end ily
“all my answers need the addendum of “I am an idiot, and there are many things I don’t know”Gurl same
HiHi. how u doin
I am a gayAbsolutely. We love that for you.
[bee movie script]Hi. no. dislike.
Comrades! You have nothing to lose but your chains!There’s like 5 of you that said this and i love it
imagine being sega and not working towards creating and publishing a new jet set radio future game; absolutely criminalImagine being sega. Can’t relate
Perhaps a link in the side bar we can click to escape the subreddit, especially on mobile if possible.Honestly not a bad idea. I’ll look into this.
Please just add the QA to the name. It’s 2 lettersI’m sorry, i can’t change the subreddit name. I’ll add it to the sidebar tho <3
Sexual attraction is bourgeoisIdk what this means but it is now one of the central tenets of my faith
Thanks for all the “other” optionsYou’re welcome it made like, 100x more work for me, but i kinda like that we have a smidge of qualitative data alongside all the quantitative shit.
Thanks for letting me participate despite my non LGBT statusThanks for being chill!
You people need to calm down. I can sense that this energy primarily comes from North America, so I will explain. The level of discrimination and the lack of basic human rights are so extreme, people cannot stand it anymore even if they are not fully aware of these subconscious vibes, so they need to pull extremely in the other direction to make up for this. And hence you have this kind of subculture that emerges as result. The problem is that, you people are as bad as the other end of the problem because you're as extreme, and it translates into over the top aggression and people so insanely touchy they see an attack in absolutely everything, even if they are not being attacked. Become aware of these energies, and chill.Gurl are you like okay? Do you need a lie down? Some fruit snacks? Everything okay at home?
“I think we need mods who do more than just let people police the sub themselves. We may only need a new mod if the current mods don’t change how they mod. Respond to reports is what I’m saying (I don’t see almost any removed comments ever)”I’m gonna hold my hands up here, I have generally sucked ass at this. I rely almost completely on you lot reporting things to me, but for the longest time I had a big ol mod queue that was just overwhelming to look at. I’ve made changes to this in the past few weeks, including
” i think a little more mod participation would be cool. just seeing admins in comments laughing and joking along with us, and sharing in the memes”I’ve honestly been thinking about this comment for a while. I try to avoid posting here because, again, I’ve seen a lot of criticism of mods who participate too much in their own subs, especially when they distinguish their posts. I don’t wanna look like a dick, yknow? But I like this comment and I’m gonna try and just hang out with you lot more <3
Mod posts for awareness days (ie bisexuality awareness, TDOR, etc)I kinda think this idea slaps. Does anybody have a calendar of important LGBT dates? I think we could tie this into the other comment about challenges for themed memes, where appropriate.
Clarity as to what this neat little subreddit is aboutMe_irlgbt is a queer shitposting subreddit. It’s generally for memes and queer fuckery. Not selfies. That’s about it.
Support threads/postsOkay, so, the reason I’m not going to do this is because I feel that if I post a thread for support, I then have a duty of care to anybody who posts in it. I do not have the capability, time, or knowledge to provide that duty of care, so I feel it would be strongly unethical to do this, regardless of how good the intentions are. I think it’s a well-meaning idea, I just wanted to clarify why I’m personally not comfortable with it.
Not everybody in me_irlgbt is gay. Can we have more inclusivity?When I use “gay” on this subreddit, especially if I’m referring to the general mass of users, I wholeheartedly mean it in a community way. Like, “we, the gays” as contrapoints once said. You are welcome here. This isn’t the only response along these lines, so I will keep it in mind when making changes.
submitted by bitmex_register to u/bitmex_register [link] [comments]
Founded by HDR Global Trading Limited (which in turn was founded by former bankers Arthur Hayes, Samuel Reed and Ben Delo) in 2014, BitMEX is a trading platform operating around the world and registered in the Seychelles.
Meaning Bitcoin Mercantile Exchange, BitMEX is one of the largest Bitcoin trading platforms currently operating, with a daily trading volume of over 35,000 BTC and over 540,000 accesses monthly and a trading history of over $34 billion worth of Bitcoin since its inception.
Unlike many other trading exchanges, BitMEX only accepts deposits through Bitcoin, which can then be used to purchase a variety of other cryptocurrencies. BitMEX specialises in sophisticated financial operations such as margin trading, which is trading with leverage. Like many of the exchanges that operate through cryptocurrencies, BitMEX is currently unregulated in any jurisdiction.
How to Sign Up to BitMEXIn order to create an account on BitMEX, users first have to register with the website. Registration only requires an email address, the email address must be a genuine address as users will receive an email to confirm registration in order to verify the account. Once users are registered, there are no trading limits. Traders must be at least 18 years of age to sign up.
However, it should be noted that BitMEX does not accept any US-based traders and will use IP checks to verify that users are not in the US. While some US users have bypassed this with the use of a VPN, it is not recommended that US individuals sign up to the BitMEX service, especially given the fact that alternative exchanges are available to service US customers that function within the US legal framework.
How to Use BitMEX
BitMEX allows users to trade cryptocurrencies against a number of fiat currencies, namely the US Dollar, the Japanese Yen and the Chinese Yuan. BitMEX allows users to trade a number of different cryptocurrencies, namely Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Dash, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Litecoin, Monero, Ripple, Tezos and Zcash.
The trading platform on BitMEX is very intuitive and easy to use for those familiar with similar markets. However, it is not for the beginner. The interface does look a little dated when compared to newer exchanges like Binance and Kucoin’s.
Once users have signed up to the platform, they should click on Trade, and all the trading instruments will be displayed beneath.
Clicking on the particular instrument opens the orderbook, recent trades, and the order slip on the left. The order book shows three columns – the bid value for the underlying asset, the quantity of the order, and the total USD value of all orders, both short and long.
The widgets on the trading platform can be changed according to the user’s viewing preferences, allowing users to have full control on what is displayed. It also has a built in feature that provides for TradingView charting. This offers a wide range of charting tool and is considered to be an improvement on many of the offering available from many of its competitors.
Once trades are made, all orders can be easily viewed in the trading platform interface. There are tabs where users can select their Active Orders, see the Stops that are in place, check the Orders Filled (total or partially) and the trade history. On the Active Orders and Stops tabs, traders can cancel any order, by clicking the “Cancel” button. Users also see all currently open positions, with an analysis if it is in the black or red.
BitMEX uses a method called auto-deleveraging which BitMEX uses to ensure that liquidated positions are able to be closed even in a volatile market. Auto-deleveraging means that if a position bankrupts without available liquidity, the positive side of the position deleverages, in order of profitability and leverage, the highest leveraged position first in queue. Traders are always shown where they sit in the auto-deleveraging queue, if such is needed.
Although the BitMEX platform is optimized for mobile, it only has an Android app (which is not official). There is no iOS app available at present. However, it is recommended that users use it on the desktop if possible.
BitMEX offers a variety of order types for users:
Futures and SwapsA futures contract is an agreement to buy or sell a given asset in the future at a predetermined price. On BitMEX, users can leverage up to 100x on certain contracts.
Perpetual swaps are similar to futures, except that there is no expiry date for them and no settlement. Additionally, they trade close to the underlying reference Index Price, unlike futures, which may diverge substantially from the Index Price.
BitMEX also offers Binary series contracts, which are prediction-based contracts which can only settle at either 0 or 100. In essence, the Binary series contracts are a more complicated way of making a bet on a given event.
The only Binary series betting instrument currently available is related to the next 1mb block on the Bitcoin blockchain. Binary series contracts are traded with no leverage, a 0% maker fee, a 0.25% taker fee and 0.25% settlement fee.
Bitmex LeverageBitMEX allows its traders to leverage their position on the platform. Leverage is the ability to place orders that are bigger than the users’ existing balance. This could lead to a higher profit in comparison when placing an order with only the wallet balance. Trading in such conditions is called “Margin Trading.”
There are two types of Margin Trading: Isolated and Cross-Margin. The former allows the user to select the amount of money in their wallet that should be used to hold their position after an order is placed. However, the latter provides that all of the money in the users’ wallet can be used to hold their position, and therefore should be treated with extreme caution.
The BitMEX platform allows users to set their leverage level by using the leverage slider. A maximum leverage of 1:100 is available (on Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash). This is quite a high level of leverage for cryptocurrencies, with the average offered by other exchanges rarely exceeding 1:20.
BitMEX FeesFor traditional futures trading, BitMEX has a straightforward fee schedule. As noted, in terms of leverage offered, BitMEX offers up to 100% leverage, with the amount off leverage varying from product to product.
However, it should be noted that trading at the highest leverages is sophisticated and is intended for professional investors that are familiar with speculative trading. The fees and leverage are as follows:
However, there are additional fees for hidden / iceberg orders. A hidden order pays the taker fee until the entire hidden quantity is completely executed. Then, the order will become normal, and the user will receive the maker rebate for the non-hidden amount.
Deposits and WithdrawalsBitMEX does not charge fees on deposits or withdrawals. However, when withdrawing Bitcoin, the minimum Network fee is based on blockchain load. The only costs therefore are those of the banks or the cryptocurrency networks.
As noted previously, BitMEX only accepts deposits in Bitcoin and therefore Bitcoin serves as collateral on trading contracts, regardless of whether or not the trade involves Bitcoin.
The minimum deposit is 0.001 BTC. There are no limits on withdrawals, but withdrawals can also be in Bitcoin only. To make a withdrawal, all that users need to do is insert the amount to withdraw and the wallet address to complete the transfer.
Deposits can be made 24/7 but withdrawals are processed by hand at a recurring time once per day. The hand processed withdrawals are intended to increase the security levels of users’ funds by providing extra time (and email notice) to cancel any fraudulent withdrawal requests, as well as bypassing the use of automated systems & hot wallets which may be more prone to compromise.
Supported CurrenciesBitMEX operates as a crypto to crypto exchange and makes use of a Bitcoin-in/Bitcoin-out structure. Therefore, platform users are currently unable to use fiat currencies for any payments or transfers, however, a plus side of this is that there are no limits for trading and the exchange incorporates trading pairs linked to the US Dollar (XBT), Japanese Yen (XBJ), and Chinese Yuan (XBC).
BitMEX supports the following cryptocurrencies:
Trading Technologies International PartnershipHDR Global Trading, the company which owns BitMEX, has recently announced a partnership with Trading Technologies International, Inc. (TT), a leading international high-performance trading software provider.
The TT platform is designed specifically for professional traders, brokers, and market-access providers, and incorporates a wide variety of trading tools and analytical indicators that allow even the most advanced traders to customize the software to suit their unique trading styles. The TT platform also provides traders with global market access and trade execution through its privately managed infrastructure and the partnership will see BitMEX users gaining access to the trading tools on all BitMEX products, including the popular XBT/USD Perpetual Swap pairing.
The BitMEX Insurance FundThe ability to trade on leverage is one of the exchange’s main selling points and offering leverage and providing the opportunity for traders to trade against each other may result in a situation where the winners do not receive all of their expected profits. As a result of the amounts of leverage involved, it’s possible that the losers may not have enough margin in their positions to pay the winners.
Traditional exchanges like the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) offset this problem by utilizing multiple layers of protection and cryptocurrency trading platforms offering leverage cannot currently match the levels of protection provided to winning traders.
In addition, cryptocurrency exchanges offering leveraged trades propose a capped downside and unlimited upside on a highly volatile asset with the caveat being that on occasion, there may not be enough funds in the system to pay out the winners.
To help solve this problem, BitMEX has developed an insurance fund system, and when a trader has an open leveraged position, their position is forcefully closed or liquidated when their maintenance margin is too low.
Here, a trader’s profit and loss does not reflect the actual price their position was closed on the market, and with BitMEX when a trader is liquidated, their equity associated with the position drops down to zero.
In the following example, the trader has taken a 100x long position. In the event that the mark price of Bitcoin falls to $3,980 (by 0.5%), then the position gets liquidated with the 100 Bitcoin position needing to be sold on the market.
This means that it does not matter what price this trade executes at, namely if it’s $3,995 or $3,000, as from the view of the liquidated trader, regardless of the price, they lose all the equity they had in their position, and lose the entire one Bitcoin.
Assuming there is a fully liquid market, the bid/ask spread should be tighter than the maintenance margin. Here, liquidations manifest as contributions to the insurance fund (e.g. if the maintenance margin is 50bps, but the market is 1bp wide), and the insurance fund should rise by close to the same amount as the maintenance margin when a position is liquidated. In this scenario, as long as healthy liquid markets persist, the insurance fund should continue its steady growth.
The following graphs further illustrate the example, and in the first chart, market conditions are healthy with a narrow bid/ask spread (just $2) at the time of liquidation. Here, the closing trade occurs at a higher price than the bankruptcy price (the price where the margin balance is zero) and the insurance fund benefits.
Illustrative example of an insurance contribution – Long 100x with 1 BTC collateral
(Note: The above illustration is based on opening a 100x long position at $4,000 per BTC and 1 Bitcoin of collateral. The illustration is an oversimplification and ignores factors such as fees and other adjustments.
The bid and offer prices represent the state of the order book at the time of liquidation. The closing trade price is $3,978, representing $1 of slippage compared to the $3,979 bid price at the time of liquidation.)
The second chart shows a wide bid/ask spread at the time of liquidation, here, the closing trade takes place at a lower price than the bankruptcy price, and the insurance fund is used to make sure that winning traders receive their expected profits.
This works to stabilize the potential for returns as there is no guarantee that healthy market conditions can continue, especially during periods of heightened price volatility. During these periods, it’s actually possible that the insurance fund can be used up than it is built up.
Illustrative example of an insurance depletion – Long 100x with 1 BTC collateral
(Notes: The above illustration is based on opening a 100x long position at $4,000 per BTC and 1 Bitcoin of collateral. The illustration is an oversimplification and ignores factors such as fees and other adjustments.
The bid and offer prices represent the state of the order book at the time of liquidation. The closing trade price is $3,800, representing $20 of slippage compared to the $3,820 bid price at the time of liquidation.)
The exchange declared in February 2019, that the BitMEX insurance fund retained close to 21,000 Bitcoin (around $70 million based on Bitcoin spot prices at the time).
This figure represents just 0.007% of BitMEX’s notional annual trading volume, which has been quoted as being approximately $1 trillion. This is higher than the insurance funds as a proportion of trading volume of the CME, and therefore, winning traders on BitMEX are exposed to much larger risks than CME traders as:
This system may appear controversial as first, though some may argue that there is a degree of uniformity to it. It’s also worth noting that the exchange also makes use of Auto Deleveraging which means that on occasion, leveraged positions in profit can still be reduced during certain time periods if a liquidated order cannot be executed in the market.
More adventurous traders should note that while the insurance fund holds 21,000 Bitcoin, worth approximately 0.1% of the total Bitcoin supply, BitMEX still doesn’t offer the same level of guarantees to winning traders that are provided by more traditional leveraged trading platforms.
Given the inherent volatility of the cryptocurrency market, there remains some possibility that the fund gets drained down to zero despite its current size. This may result in more successful traders lacking confidence in the platform and choosing to limit their exposure in the event of BitMEX being unable to compensate winning traders.
How suitable is BitMEX for Beginners?BitMEX generates high Bitcoin trading levels, and also attracts good levels of volume across other crypto-to-crypto transfers. This helps to maintain a buzz around the exchange, and BitMEX also employs relatively low trading fees, and is available round the world (except to US inhabitants).
This helps to attract the attention of people new to the process of trading on leverage and when getting started on the platform there are 5 main navigation Tabs to get used to:
In addition, BitMEX provides a variety of educational resources including an FAQ section, Futures guides, Perpetual Contracts guides, and further resources in the “References” account tab.
For users looking for more in depth analysis, the BitMEX blog produces high level descriptions of a number of subjects and has garnered a good reputation among the cryptocurrency community.
Most importantly, the exchange also maintains a testnet platform, built on top of testnet Bitcoin, which allows anyone to try out programs and strategies before moving on to the live exchange.
This is crucial as despite the wealth of resources available, BitMEX is not really suitable for beginners, and margin trading, futures contracts and swaps are best left to experienced, professional or institutional traders.
Margin trading and choosing to engage in leveraged activity are risky processes and even more advanced traders can describe the process as a high risk and high reward “game”. New entrants to the sector should spend a considerable amount of time learning about margin trading and testing out strategies before considering whether to open a live account.
Is BitMEX Safe?BitMEX is widely considered to have strong levels of security. The platform uses multi-signature deposits and withdrawal schemes which can only be used by BitMEX partners. BitMEX also utilises Amazon Web Services to protect the servers with text messages and two-factor authentication, as well as hardware tokens.
BitMEX also has a system for risk checks, which requires that the sum of all account holdings on the website must be zero. If it’s not, all trading is immediately halted. As noted previously, withdrawals are all individually hand-checked by employees, and private keys are never stored in the cloud. Deposit addresses are externally verified to make sure that they contain matching keys. If they do not, there is an immediate system shutdown.
In addition, the BitMEX trading platform is written in kdb+, a database and toolset popular amongst major banks in high frequency trading applications. The BitMEX engine appears to be faster and more reliable than some of its competitors, such as Poloniex and Bittrex.
They have email notifications, and PGP encryption is used for all communication.
The exchange hasn’t been hacked in the past.
How Secure is the platform?As previously mentioned, BitMEX is considered to be a safe exchange and incorporates a number of security protocols that are becoming standard among the sector’s leading exchanges. In addition to making use of Amazon Web Services’ cloud security, all the exchange’s systems can only be accessed after passing through multiple forms of authentication, and individual systems are only able to communicate with each other across approved and monitored channels.
Communication is also further secured as the exchange provides optional PGP encryption for all automated emails, and users can insert their PGP public key into the form inside their accounts.
Once set up, BitMEX will encrypt and sign all the automated emails sent by you or to your account by the [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) email address. Users can also initiate secure conversations with the support team by using the email address and public key on the Technical Contact, and the team have made their automated system’s PGP key available for verification in their Security Section.
The platform’s trading engine is written in kdb+, a database and toolset used by leading financial institutions in high-frequency trading applications, and the speed and reliability of the engine is also used to perform a full risk check after every order placement, trade, settlement, deposit, and withdrawal.
All accounts in the system must consistently sum to zero, and if this does not happen then trading on the platform is immediately halted for all users.
With regards to wallet security, BitMEX makes use of a multisignature deposit and withdrawal scheme, and all exchange addresses are multisignature by default with all storage being kept offline. Private keys are not stored on any cloud servers and deep cold storage is used for the majority of funds.
Furthermore, all deposit addresses sent by the BitMEX system are verified by an external service that works to ensure that they contain the keys controlled by the founders, and in the event that the public keys differ, the system is immediately shut down and trading halted. The exchange’s security practices also see that every withdrawal is audited by hand by a minimum of two employees before being sent out.
BitMEX Customer SupportThe trading platform has a 24/7 support on multiple channels, including email, ticket systems and social media. The typical response time from the customer support team is about one hour, and feedback on the customer support generally suggest that the customer service responses are helpful and are not restricted to automated responses.
The BitMEX also offers a knowledge base and FAQs which, although they are not necessarily always helpful, may assist and direct users towards the necessary channels to obtain assistance.
BitMEX also offers trading guides which can be accessed here
ConclusionThere would appear to be few complaints online about BitMEX, with most issues relating to technical matters or about the complexities of using the website. Older complaints also appeared to include issues relating to low liquidity, but this no longer appears to be an issue.
BitMEX is clearly not a platform that is not intended for the amateur investor. The interface is complex and therefore it can be very difficult for users to get used to the platform and to even navigate the website.
However, the platform does provide a wide range of tools and once users have experience of the platform they will appreciate the wide range of information that the platform provides.
Lupine Publishers- Biostatistics and Biometrics Open Access Journalsubmitted by LupinePublishers to u/LupinePublishers [link] [comments]
AbstractOn the example of the table of contents of eight essential amino acids in 22 products, the methodology of factor analysis and determination of the coefficient of correlation variation, calculated as the ratio of the sum of the correlation coefficients of stable laws and laws of binary relations between amino acids to the product of the number of amino acids as influencing variables and as dependent indicators. It is shown that this evaluation criterion depends on the composition of the products and the set of amino acids considered. Therefore, it is proposed to make a more complete table considering the set of objects, which considers the content of all 20 amino acids. The law of binary relations between amino acids is the sum of the exponential law and the biotechnical law of stress excitation in the product. By correlation coefficients of individual binary relations, the ratings of amino acids as influencing variables and as dependent indicators are performed. The correlation matrix of super strong bonds of essential amino acids with correlation coefficients of more than 0.99 is considered, in part of which the graphs are given. By the nature of behavior, it is proposed to classify the binary relationships between amino acids into positive, neutral and negative. Separately, the method of rating products. The equations and graphs of rank distributions of the content of essential amino acids in products are given. The rating of essential amino acids by dispersion of residues from the equations of binary relations and rank distributions is given.
IntroductionUnder the expression correlative variation Charles Darwin understands that the whole organization is internally connected during growth and development, and when weak variations occur in one part and are cumulated by natural selection, the other parts are modified. Modifications in the structure recognized by taxonomists for a very important, can depend solely on the laws of variation and correlation . For example, Phyto enosis  has at least three fundamental properties: first, the correlative variation in the values of parameters in time and space; second, the correlation depends on the genotypic properties of the plant species; third, the variation is due to phenotypic properties, as well as the cycles of solar activity , the rotation of the moon around the Earth and our planet around itself .
In accordance with the correlative variation of Charles Darwin, during the growth and development of the body, significant changes in the initial age will lead to changes in the structure and in the adult creature. Therefore, people, taking, and thereby enhancing some feature of, almost, probably, unintentionally modifying other parts of the body based on the mysterious laws of correlation . Any non-investigative variation is insignificant for us. But the number and variety of hereditary deviations in the structure, both minor and very important in physiological terms, is infinite. All things are things, properties and relations , and in the bios relations control things and change their structures. The purpose of the article is to show the laws and regularities of the correlative variation of the content of eight essential amino acids in a set of 22 products.
The Concept of Correlative VariationVariability  is usually associated with the living conditions that the species has been subjected to for several successive generations. In General, according to Darwin, there are two factors: the nature of the body (most important factor) and the properties of existing conditions . Thus, we adopted the basic hypothesis that typing, and the classification has no effect on biotech based on mastery of life laws. Therefore, the variation (the set of deviations from the Darwin correlation) depends on the human factor, i.e. on the quality of measurements of soil properties and plants [4,6]. Soil according to V.V. Dokuchaev  is a living organism. Therefore, the principle of Darwin’s correlative variation should provide high adequacy of the revealed regularities . Similarly, a priori we will consider experiments with essential amino acids  to measure their concentration in different types of products for humans and animals highly correlative.
From the concept of correlative variation of Charles Darwin, which was not understood by mathematicians and was not developed by biologists, it clearly follows that in other conditions of the habitat other combinations of values of factors may be stronger (Darwin calls factors hereditary deviations). Therefore, weak factor connections may be stronger for other combinations of the studied objects. As a result, there is a mathematical tool [9- 12] (identification method) for comparison of different natural and artificial (technical) objects . The coefficient of correlative variation is considered for many factors of the physical object of study, that is, biological, chemical, technological, socio-economic, etc. It is equal to the ratio of the total sum of the correlation coefficients to the square of the number of factors for the complete table model (or to the product of the number of factors and). The type of the system under study does not affect this criterion, and the correlation variation depends entirely on the internal properties of the system under study. The coefficient of correlative variation is calculated by the formula
K – the coefficient of correlative variation of the set of factors or parameters characterizing the system under study,
ΣΣr – the total sum of the correlation coefficients for the rows and columns of the correlation matrix of the relationships between the factors,
N – number of factors to consider in the symmetric table,
Nx, Ny – the number of factors on the axes x and y .
Functional connectivity is a universal property of matter. For example, internal correlation variation is observed in the results of agrochemical analysis of soil samples , as all agrochemical parameters are measured on the same sample. Sampling sites do not affect the internal connectivity of biochemical and other reactions, that is, the same interactions between chemical elements and their compounds are observed on Earth. Such a community is called an ecosystem  or a biosphere superposition. The strongest correlative variation over 0.999 is observed in the set of genes [13- 15]. Slightly less, but more than 0.99, as will be shown in this article, such a variation exists in the group of essential amino acids.
Essential Amino AcidsThese are essential amino acids for animals that cannot be synthesized in the body, in particular, human. Therefore, their intake from food is necessary (Table 1).
Rating of Influencing and Dependent Factors
To determine the coefficient of correlative variation of nine amino acids among 22 types of products it is necessary to conduct a factor analysis . Due to the absence of a measured value of glycine content in one cell of Table 1 in the row Shiitaki mushrooms, factor analysis was first carried out [9, pp. 82-83, table. 3.30] nine factors and 21 products. The coefficient of correlative variation was equal to 0.9985. All binary 92– 9 = 72 relations are characterized by the exponential law. Table 2 shows the correlation matrix of binary relationships and the rating of eight factors excluding glycine for 22 products according to Table 1.
Table 2: Correlation matrix of factor analysis without glycine and rating of factors in identification by the exponential law.
The coefficient of correlative variation is 0.9727, which is significantly less than 0.9985. In the future, it turned out that in addition to the indicative law, the biotechnical law [4,6,9-15] of the stress excitation of amino acids depending on each other is additionally considered (Table 3). With the coefficient of correlative variation 0.9890 in the first place among the influencing variables was lysine, and among the indicators -phenylalanine. Thus, the correlative variation is very sensitive to the composition of amino acids and products. This fact in the future will reveal the rational compositions, structures and functions of amino acids in different systems under study.
The Law of the Relationship Between Amino AcidsIt is expressed by an equation of the form
where y- amino acid content in the product as an indicator (g per 100 g of product),
x- amino acid content of the product as an influencing variable (g per 100 g of product),
a1..... a6 - the parameters of the model (2) taking the numerical values in the course of structural-parametric identification in the software environment CurveExpert-1.40. Formula (2) shows three types of stress-induced amino acids under the influence of each other: positive, neutral and negative. Neutral type appears only without shiitake mushrooms, that is, when the amino acid content changes from 0 to 2 (maximum 2.009 for beef). The maximum concentrations of nine amino acids without shiitaki mushrooms are in two products-beef and chicken meat. In the amino acid content range from 2 to 7 in Table 1 there are no types of products (except mushrooms). Therefore, it is necessary to add new products to the list and Table 1.
In the concentration range from 0 to 7, two types of behavior appear:
Correlation MatrixFrom Table 2, choose a binary relationship with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.99 (Table 4). The neutral behavior of amino acids receives only 15 binary bonds at the level of superstrong adequacy (or 100 15 / 72 = 20.83%). We will do the same with the data in Table 3. Table 5 shows a significant increase in the number of super strong links, 33% or 45.83%. The matrix remained completeeight rows and columns. However, the behavior of biological objects is characterized, in addition to the trend (2) vibrational adaptation [6,12,14,15]. To identify the wavelet signals from the amino acid behavior under mutual influence, it is necessary to significantly expand Table 1 also with interchangeable amino acids. Especially it is necessary to pay attention to the types of products that give a concentration of 2 to 7.
Binary Relation GraphsThe effect of each essential amino acid on the concentration of other amino acids is shown in four graphs, which are arranged in figures in descending correlation coefficient. Of the 72 graphs in the article shows a total of 32 graphics (Figures 1-8). They provide a visual representation of the variations of formula (2). The second component of the general model (2) shows a different level of adaptability (positive or negative) dependent on the influencing amino acid by the coefficient of adaptability.
On the charts, the positive behavior of essential amino acids is shown as a convex curve, and the negative behavior is shown as a concave curve. On the effect of histidine and methionine it is possible to estimate the minimum interval of the concentration of essential amino acids with neutral type. As can be seen from the graphs in Figure 3, the neutral behavior type is from 0 to 0.5. The convexity or concavity of the graph has a different length along the abscissa axis. It is obvious that the addition of the list from Table 1 with additional products having amino acid concentration in the range from 2 to 7, will allow to specify the parameters of the model (2) and add a wave function. However, in our opinion, the nature (design) (2) of the expansion of the list of products will not change. Graphs of the effect of lysine on other amino acids have a concave appearance, which relates them to the negative effect. At the same time, there is a steep rise of curves, more than five times after the concentration of lysine 2.5-2.8. Figure 7 shows the multidirectional effect of methionine on other amino acids along the different length of the concave or convex part. For example, the positive effect of phenylalanine on the change of isoleucine is observed in a short period of abscissa from 0.3 to 1.3. But the effect of phenylalanine on the change of leucine is observed throughout the axis of abscissa.
Parameters of a Two-Member ModelModel parameters (2) are given in Table 6 The positive form of the equation (2) is used in the recording. Then the negative type is easily determined by the negative sign before the model parameter a3. Then you can classify (Table 7) three types of behavior of essential amino acids (code: 1 – positive; 0 – neutral; -1 – negative). Apparently, for the most complete amino acid system, the total sum of codes will approach zero. As a variable on the positive effect in the first place – phenylalanine, and among the dependent indicators – lysine.
The Quality of the Source Data and Ratings of ProductsA tabular model is a good-quality and relatively complete table of input data for statistical modeling by identification of stable laws and regularities. The quality factor is understood as the accuracy of the numbers, the primacy of the indicators (the factor analysis is not initially permitted secondary received, calculations, parameters), consistency of the description of the object of the studies consider many parameters. As a result, we get the distribution of places in descending order (Table 8).
Let’s check the initial data of Table 1 for the quality factor.
Any of the factors is the vector orientation and the two possible behaviors:
The remnants after (3) show that wave function is possible in addition to the trend. Half amplitude reaches a share of 100 × 17.3524 / 85 = 20.41%. In the article we do not consider vibrational adaptation, as we need a table for all 20 amino acids. Each of the eight amino acids will be considered separately.
Ranking Distribution of Amino AcidsFor statistical modeling, the ranks R must start from zero, with the rank distributions subject to the exponential law (growth or death). After the identification of the generalized trend  are obtained (Figure 10) formulas:
The sum of the squares of deviations from the equations of binary and unary (by ranks) relations between eight essential amino acids is written in the dispersion matrix (Table 9). As the influencing variable on the first place on minimum of the sum of dispersions there was isoleucine, and among dependent indicators – methionine. The average variance for all 82 = 64 cells of the matrix is D = 0.1231.
ConclusionWe have extended the principle of correlative variation not only to Charles Darwin organisms, but also to populations (in the article population of eight amino acids) and even to any biological, biotechnical and technical systems . This principle allows to compare heterogeneous systems on one or some set of factors by functional connectivity. The coefficient of correlative variation, as a generalized criterion for comparing different sets of homogeneous biological objects, gets a very high value. For example, populations of genes [14,15] obtained the correlative coefficient of variation not less than 0.9999. In the example of this article, the level of adequacy for the set of eight essential amino acids is not less than 0.99. This makes it possible in the future to create the most complete table of contents and other indicators for a system of 20 amino acids and hundreds of objects, including products. Functional connectivity between essential amino acids was super strong and it is subject to a simple formula of two-term trend containing exponential and biotechnical laws. The absence of the second term determines the neutral type of behavior, and signs in the presence of the second member characterize the positive (+) or negative (-) type of behavior of amino acids in the studied system of products. To identify the effect of oscillatory adaptation of essential amino acids to each other in some sets of products need more accurate (with measurement error, less than an order of magnitude) data.
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